Glossary of Relevant Terms
A man-made object of a culture such as a tool, an article of clothing or a prepared food.
The trade of goods and services for other goods and services without the use of money.
The purchase and/or use of goods and services.
An alternative given up as a result of a decision.
A unit of political space; the entire land area of a nation or state.
The complex set of meanings, attitudes, values and ideas belonging to a cultural group.
A pattern of behavior accepted by society.
Learned behavior of a group of people, which includes their belief systems and languages, their social relationships, their institutions and organizations, and their material goods such as food, clothing, buildings, tools and machines.
The destruction and removal of a forest and its undergrowth by natural or human forces.
The quantities of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at various prices during a given time period.
The spread of people, ideas, technology and products among places.
Unfair treatment of a person or group based on a variety of prejudices.
An increase in an economy's ability to produce goods and services over time.
The organization of productive resources by a person willing to take risks to start.
A resource that is neither renewable nor nonrenewable, but must be used when or where it occurs (e.g., running water, wind, sunlight).
The act, process or policy of making something worldwide in scope or application.
Objects that are capable of satisfying people’s wants.
An aspect of a place or a quality of the Earth’s surface constructed by people including cities, parks, buildings and roads.
The use of institutional policies, practices and/or procedures to withhold rights, privileges and opportunities from the race that is believed to be inferior.
The interaction of buyers and sellers exchanging goods or services.
A timeline that utilizes two or more rows of events, with each row representing a different subject or perspective occurring during the period under study (e.g., a timeline of the 19th century with separate rows for political, social, military and technological developments).
A group of people bound together by a strong sense of shared values and cultural characteristics, including language, religion and common history.
A productive resource supplied by nature (e.g., ores, trees, arable land).
A finite natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used (e.g., petroleum, minerals).
A specific point of view in understanding or judging things or events.
A natural aspect or quality of the Earth’s surface that includes land formations and vegetation zones.
A location having distinctive characteristics which give it meaning and character and distinguish it from other locations.
An account of an event by someone who was present at the event.
A person who makes goods and services.
Something produced by human or mechanical effort or by a natural process.
The act of combining natural resources, human resources, capital goods and entrepreneurship to make goods and services.
The resources used to make goods and services (i.e., natural resources, human resources, capital goods).
A social, political, economic or environmental attraction of a new area that drew people away from their previous location.
A social, political, economic, or environmental force that drove people from their previous location to search for a new one.
An area with one or more common characteristics or features, which give it a measure of homogeneity and make it different from surrounding areas.
The degree to which something is trustworthy or is suitable to be depended upon.
A natural resource that can be regenerated if used carefully (e.g., fish, timber).
An account of an event by someone who was not present at the event.
Standard of Living
A person's or group's level of material well-being, as measured by education, housing, health care and nutrition.
An area of land; the land and waters under the jurisdiction of a state, nation or sovereign.
A portrayal on a flat surface of geographic topic (e.g., migration routes, resource locations, population densities).
The sacrifice of one option for another when a decision is made.