Historical Timeline

Pioneer Settlement Area

The period from the mid-19th to early 20th centuries was a time of great change in the United States. This era saw the rise of industrialization, the decline of agrarian economy, wars, inventions and "modernization." Changes in transportation and communication brought the world closer. The effects of these changes were far reaching and, in part, helped define the rapid development of Northwest Ohio. 

The following is a brief timeline of some of the historical high points both national and local from 1787 to 1910, covered at the Historic Sauder Village. We hope this will help you put what you see at the Village in a broader context for your students.

1787
The Northwest Ordinance opens up in the Northwest Territory, which includes current day Ohio, for white settlement.
 
1788
The first town in the Northwest Territory, Campus Martius (now called Marietta) is established at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum Rivers.
 
1789
George Washington is sworn in as the first president of the United States.
 
1789–1791
A confederation of Native Tribes led by the Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and the Miami Chief Little Turtle lead crushing battles against American troops led by Harmar and St. Clair in the Maumee Valley. Losses in these battles well exceed those in the more "famous" Battle of the Little Big Horn under General Custar several decades later in the west.
 
1790
The Bill of Rights is added to the Constitution.
 
1794
The Battle of Fallen Timbers: American troops under General "Mad" Anthony Wayne defeat the alliance of Native Tribes near current day Toledo, Ohio. His success is due in part to his alliance with William Wells, the adopted son of Little Turtle who served as a scout for Wayne. The battle lasts only an hour but has profound effects on the Natives.
 
1795
The treaty of Greenville gives control of the entire region of what is now Ohio to the United States government except for the Northwest Quadrant, which becomes Indian Territory. The Natives agree to cease all hostilities against the United States, acknowledge they are under the protection of the U.S. government and agree that they can sell their land to only the U.S. government.
 
1800
Washington D.C. becomes the permanent capital of the United States.
 
1803
Ohio becomes a state of the United States of America.
 
1803–1807
The Corps of Discovery Expedition under the leadership of Lewis and Clark open up the lands west of the Mississippi to exploration and settlement and eventually relocation of Native Tribes from the east.
 
1808
Peter Stuckey was born on December 19. He grew up to become a prominent buggy maker in German Township. We have a representation of Peter's house and wagon shop now at Sauder Village as part of Pioneer Settlement.
 
Early 1800s
The Shawnee Chief Tecumseh rises to prominence, preaching abandonment of white ways and forming alliances among the tribes.
 
1812–1814
The War of 1812 pits the British and Native alliances against the new American government for ultimate control of the Northwest Territory. At the end of the war, the British end attempts to occupy or control any land in the United States.
 
1813
Tecumseh is killed in the Battle of the Thames. His death is a hard blow to the native alliance and virtually terminates their resistance.
 
1814
The Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812 and the British influence in the region.
 
1818
The Treaty of St. Mary's between the Delaware and Miami Nations and the United States Government cedes all native lands in Ohio and Indiana to the government. This is the first treaty to put in place the policy of moving Indians to lands west of the Mississippi.
 
1824
Anna Sauder is born on November 2 in Holmes County, Ohio. We are telling Anna's story of raising a family in the middle of the 19th century as part of our Pioneer Settlement addition.
 
1825
The Erie Canal opens. Canal "fever" causes an influx of white settlement into the Maumee Valley.
 
1828
Noah Webster publishes the first dictionary.
 
1830
The Congress under President Jackson enacts the Indian Removal act in direct opposition to the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in the matter of Cherokee vs. Georgia upholding the Cherokee's rights as a sovereign nation. The Indian Removal Act called for the removal of all Natives to land west of the Mississippi.
 
1832
The first removal of the Ottawa of the Maumee to land west of the Mississippi begins.
 
1834
The Lauber party, the first permanent European setters in this region of Northwest Ohio, arrived in August to a location just north and east of present day Historic Sauder Village and establishes the first white settlement in Germantownship. A replica of their first cabin is present at Sauder Village.

Andrew Jackson is president of the United States (elected 1829).
 
1836
Martin Van Buren is elected president of the United States.

First school in Fulton County, Ohio opened in a small log structure similar to the replica found in Historic Sauder Village.
 
1838
15,000 Cherokee Indians are forcibly removed from their homes in the South to lands west of the Mississippi in what would become known as the Trail of Tears.
 
1839
The final removal of the last large population of Ottawa under Chief Ottokee takes place thus ending the reign of the Native Americans in the Maumee River Valley.
 
1840
William Henry Harrison is elected president of the United States.
 
1841
John Tyler assumes the presidency after the sudden death of Harrison from pneumonia.
 
1844
James Polk is elected president of the United States.

Samuel F.B. Morse invents the telegraph providing the first, rapid long distance means of communication. The first message sent was "What God hath wrought."

Anna Sauder Wittmer- Roth's house is built near Grabil, Indiana. Her house now stands at Sauder Village and is part of our Pioneer Settlement addition.
 

1845
Elias Howe completed his first sewing machine, forever changing the way clothing is produced. Within 40 years, sewing machines would be available for home use.

Texas became the 28th state and the newest Western state to legalize slavery.
 

1846
In May, United States Congress approved a declaration of war on Mexico over border disputes and land rights in the Southwest.
 
1848
Zachary Taylor is elected president of the United States.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, ending the war with Mexico, that gives the whole of the southwest to the United States.

The first women's rights convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York.
 

1849
The Gold Rush, which started a year earlier with the discovery of gold in California, reached its peak. Men rushing west to seek riches were called "49ers."
 
1850
President Taylor died suddenly on July 9th. Vice President Millard Filmore becomes president of the United States

The Compromise of 1850, which allowed California to be admitted as a free state and New Mexico and Utah to decide the slave issue for themselves, is ratified. This kept the Union together for a few more years.

Fulton County, Ohio is organized.

Jacob Eicher built his log cabin in Fulton County, which is now in Sauder Village.
 

1852
Franklin Pierce won the U.S. presidency.

"Uncle Tom's Cabin" by Harriet Beecher Stowe was published.
 
1854
The first train stopped in present day Archbold just south of the Historic Village. One year later the train made daily stops on its route between Toledo and Bryan, bringing access to city goods and services to this rural community.
 
1855
Jacob and Barbara Eicher's son dies in German Township, Ohio. Although we aren't sure what year they arrived and built their log home that now sits at Sauder Village, we know it is between 1850 and 1855.
 
1856
James Buchanan is elected president of the United States.
 
1857
The United States Supreme Court ruled that slaves are property, not citizens, in the Dred Scott Case that effectively opened up slavery to the entire country.

The Fulton County Agricultural Society (the precursor of the Fulton County Fair) was formed near Wauseon.
 
1859
Abolitionist John Brown and six others are hanged for treason after their unsuccessful raid on Harper's Ferry arsenal in response to the Dred Scott decision.
 
1860
Abraham Lincoln is elected president of the United States.

South Carolina secedes from the Union.
 
1861
South Carolina fires on Ft. Sumter setting off the Civil War.

Telegraph wires now link New York with San Francisco.
 
1862
Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation declaring that as of January 1 all slaves belonging to people who are rebelling against the U.S. will be freed.
 
1863
Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address.
 
1865
On April 9, Lee surrenders at Appomattox, effectively ending the war. Five days later, President Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth while attending a play in Washington, D.C. Andrew Johnson becomes president of the United States.

The first Lord's Supper (Communion) is celebrated at the Church of God in Christ Mennonite (Holdeman). Their first church building is at Sauder Village as part of the Pioneer Settlement addition.
 

1866
On May 23, Fulton County Commissioners declares Archbald, Ohio (later Archbold) to be an incorporated village with a population of 300.

First transatlantic cable links Europe with the United States.
 
1868
Ulysses S. Grant is elected president of the United States.
 
1869
The first Transcontinental Railroad is completed linking both coasts of the United States.
 
1870
The 15th Amendment grants African Americans the right to vote.
 
1871
On October 8, the Great Chicago Fire destroys a third of the city, killing several hundred and leaving thousands homeless.
 
1876
Rutherford B. Hayes becomes president of the United States.

Alexander Graham Bell receives his patent for the first telephone. Within 10 years, there were over 150,000 in use.
 
1877
Thomas Edison invents the phonograph. The first recording is his recitation of "Mary Had A Little Lamb."
 
1879
Thomas Edison perfects the Incandescent light bulb.
 
1880
James Garfield becomes president of the United States.
 
1881
On July 2, Garfield is assassinated. Vice President Chester Arthur becomes president of the United States.
 
1882
Telephone service arrives in Archbold when long distance lines are strung from Toledo to Bryan.
 
1884
Grover Cleveland wins the presidential election.
 
1886
Archbold's first newspaper The Archbold Herald begins publication on March 18 at W. O. Taylor's print shop.
 
1888
Benjamin Harrison is elected president of the United States.
 
1889
Virtually without warning, Johnstown, Pennsylvania is hit by a savage flood that kills over 2,000 people.
 
1890
On December 29, a struggle breaks out among a group of American soldiers and captive Sioux Indians which kills more than 200 Native Americans at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. This marks the last major battle between Native Americans and whites.

The Rosehill School is built north of Wauseon, Ohio. This building is now known at the District 16 schoolhouse in Historic Sauder Village.
 
1892
Grover Cleveland regains the presidency of the United States.
 
1893
The Colombian Exposition and World's Fair is held in Chicago honoring the anniversary of Columbus' discovery of the New World. Over 21 million people visit.
 
1896
Henry Ford builds his first car.

William McKinley is elected president of the United States.

The Supreme Court's decision in Plessy vs. Ferguson states that separate facilities used by African Americans, as long as they were equal to whites', were not discrimination.
 
1898
On April 24, Spain declares war on the United States following Congress' support of Cuba's fight for independence.

Marconi invented the wireless telegraph that made communication with ships at sea and later, the radio, possible.

Archbold became the first town between Toledo and Elkhart, Indiana to have electric streetlights and power.
 
1900
Dr. William McGuffin arrived in Pettisville, Ohio and began his 42-year practice as a country doctor. His 1920 office is now at Historic Sauder Village.
 
1901
On September 6, President McKinley is assassinated. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt becomes president of the United States.
 
1903
The first successful manned flight occurred on December 17 as Wilbur and Orville Wright fly their plane for 12 seconds over Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

"The Great Train Robbery" is filmed. Its popularity led to the creation of movie houses (or nickelodeons) throughout the country.
 
1904
On August 6, Erie Sauder is born in rural Fulton County, Ohio. He grows up to found Sauder Woodworking and Historic Sauder Village.
1905
July 19, trolley service from Toledo to Bryan is established on the Toledo and Indiana Railroad. Stops are made in Swanton, Delta, Wauseon, Pettisville and Archbold. In 1917, over 1 million passengers are served.
 
1906
On April 18, San Francisco is devastated by a powerful earthquake. Over 700 lives are lost.
 
1908
William Howard Taft is elected president of the United States.

Henry Ford introduces the Model T.
 
1920
Gus and Amelia Grime move their homestead, originally built in 1860 and located north of Archbold, Ohio, closer to what is now State Route 2. This is the current 1920 Homestead at Historic Sauder Village. The 1920 Homestead is one of the only buildings original to the site where Sauder Village now exists.
 
Sources
Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia, 1998 Edition
Fulton County History 1850–1976
Sauder Village interpretive material