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Historical Timeline

Pioneer Settlement Area

The period from the mid-19th to early 20th centuries was a time of great change in the United States. This era saw the rise of industrialization, the decline of agrarian economy, wars, inventions and "modernization." Changes in transportation and communication brought the world closer. The effects of these changes were far reaching and, in part, helped define the rapid development of Northwest Ohio. 

The following is a brief timeline of some of the historical high points both national and local from 1787 to 1910, covered at the Historic Sauder Village. We hope this will help you put what you see at the Village in a broader context for your students.

The Northwest Ordinance opens up in the Northwest Territory, which includes current day Ohio, for white settlement.
The first town in the Northwest Territory, Campus Martius (now called Marietta) is established at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum Rivers.
George Washington is sworn in as the first president of the United States.
A confederation of Native Tribes led by the Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and the Miami Chief Little Turtle lead crushing battles against American troops led by Harmar and St. Clair in the Maumee Valley. Losses in these battles well exceed those in the more "famous" Battle of the Little Big Horn under General Custar several decades later in the west.
The Bill of Rights is added to the Constitution.
The Battle of Fallen Timbers: American troops under General "Mad" Anthony Wayne defeat the alliance of Native Tribes near current day Toledo, Ohio. His success is due in part to his alliance with William Wells, the adopted son of Little Turtle who served as a scout for Wayne. The battle lasts only an hour but has profound effects on the Natives.
The treaty of Greenville gives control of the entire region of what is now Ohio to the United States government except for the Northwest Quadrant, which becomes Indian Territory. The Natives agree to cease all hostilities against the United States, acknowledge they are under the protection of the U.S. government and agree that they can sell their land to only the U.S. government.
Washington D.C. becomes the permanent capital of the United States.
Ohio becomes a state of the United States of America.
The Corps of Discovery Expedition under the leadership of Lewis and Clark open up the lands west of the Mississippi to exploration and settlement and eventually relocation of Native Tribes from the east.
Peter Stuckey was born on December 19. He grew up to become a prominent buggy maker in German Township. We have a representation of Peter's house and wagon shop now at Sauder Village as part of Pioneer Settlement.
Early 1800s
The Shawnee Chief Tecumseh rises to prominence, preaching abandonment of white ways and forming alliances among the tribes.
The War of 1812 pits the British and Native alliances against the new American government for ultimate control of the Northwest Territory. At the end of the war, the British end attempts to occupy or control any land in the United States.
Tecumseh is killed in the Battle of the Thames. His death is a hard blow to the native alliance and virtually terminates their resistance.
The Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812 and the British influence in the region.
The Treaty of St. Mary's between the Delaware and Miami Nations and the United States Government cedes all native lands in Ohio and Indiana to the government. This is the first treaty to put in place the policy of moving Indians to lands west of the Mississippi.
Anna Sauder is born on November 2 in Holmes County, Ohio. We are telling Anna's story of raising a family in the middle of the 19th century as part of our Pioneer Settlement addition.
The Erie Canal opens. Canal "fever" causes an influx of white settlement into the Maumee Valley.
Noah Webster publishes the first dictionary.
The Congress under President Jackson enacts the Indian Removal act in direct opposition to the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in the matter of Cherokee vs. Georgia upholding the Cherokee's rights as a sovereign nation. The Indian Removal Act called for the removal of all Natives to land west of the Mississippi.
The first removal of the Ottawa of the Maumee to land west of the Mississippi begins.
The Lauber party, the first permanent European setters in this region of Northwest Ohio, arrived in August to a location just north and east of present day Historic Sauder Village and establishes the first white settlement in Germantownship. A replica of their first cabin is present at Sauder Village.

Andrew Jackson is president of the United States (elected 1829).
Martin Van Buren is elected president of the United States.

First school in Fulton County, Ohio opened in a small log structure similar to the replica found in Historic Sauder Village.
15,000 Cherokee Indians are forcibly removed from their homes in the South to lands west of the Mississippi in what would become known as the Trail of Tears.
The final removal of the last large population of Ottawa under Chief Ottokee takes place thus ending the reign of the Native Americans in the Maumee River Valley.
William Henry Harrison is elected president of the United States.
John Tyler assumes the presidency after the sudden death of Harrison from pneumonia.
James Polk is elected president of the United States.

Samuel F.B. Morse invents the telegraph providing the first, rapid long distance means of communication. The first message sent was "What God hath wrought."

Anna Sauder Wittmer- Roth's house is built near Grabil, Indiana. Her house now stands at Sauder Village and is part of our Pioneer Settlement addition.

Elias Howe completed his first sewing machine, forever changing the way clothing is produced. Within 40 years, sewing machines would be available for home use.

Texas became the 28th state and the newest Western state to legalize slavery.

In May, United States Congress approved a declaration of war on Mexico over border disputes and land rights in the Southwest.
Zachary Taylor is elected president of the United States.

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, ending the war with Mexico, that gives the whole of the southwest to the United States.

The first women's rights convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York.

The Gold Rush, which started a year earlier with the discovery of gold in California, reached its peak. Men rushing west to seek riches were called "49ers."
President Taylor died suddenly on July 9th. Vice President Millard Filmore becomes president of the United States

The Compromise of 1850, which allowed California to be admitted as a free state and New Mexico and Utah to decide the slave issue for themselves, is ratified. This kept the Union together for a few more years.

Fulton County, Ohio is organized.

Jacob Eicher built his log cabin in Fulton County, which is now in Sauder Village.

Franklin Pierce won the U.S. presidency.

"Uncle Tom's Cabin" by Harriet Beecher Stowe was published.
The first train stopped in present day Archbold just south of the Historic Village. One year later the train made daily stops on its route between Toledo and Bryan, bringing access to city goods and services to this rural community.
Jacob and Barbara Eicher's son dies in German Township, Ohio. Although we aren't sure what year they arrived and built their log home that now sits at Sauder Village, we know it is between 1850 and 1855.
James Buchanan is elected president of the United States.
The United States Supreme Court ruled that slaves are property, not citizens, in the Dred Scott Case that effectively opened up slavery to the entire country.

The Fulton County Agricultural Society (the precursor of the Fulton County Fair) was formed near Wauseon.
Abolitionist John Brown and six others are hanged for treason after their unsuccessful raid on Harper's Ferry arsenal in response to the Dred Scott decision.
Abraham Lincoln is elected president of the United States.

South Carolina secedes from the Union.
South Carolina fires on Ft. Sumter setting off the Civil War.

Telegraph wires now link New York with San Francisco.
Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation declaring that as of January 1 all slaves belonging to people who are rebelling against the U.S. will be freed.
Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address.
On April 9, Lee surrenders at Appomattox, effectively ending the war. Five days later, President Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth while attending a play in Washington, D.C. Andrew Johnson becomes president of the United States.

The first Lord's Supper (Communion) is celebrated at the Church of God in Christ Mennonite (Holdeman). Their first church building is at Sauder Village as part of the Pioneer Settlement addition.

On May 23, Fulton County Commissioners declares Archbald, Ohio (later Archbold) to be an incorporated village with a population of 300.

First transatlantic cable links Europe with the United States.
Ulysses S. Grant is elected president of the United States.
The first Transcontinental Railroad is completed linking both coasts of the United States.
The 15th Amendment grants African Americans the right to vote.
On October 8, the Great Chicago Fire destroys a third of the city, killing several hundred and leaving thousands homeless.
Rutherford B. Hayes becomes president of the United States.

Alexander Graham Bell receives his patent for the first telephone. Within 10 years, there were over 150,000 in use.
Thomas Edison invents the phonograph. The first recording is his recitation of "Mary Had A Little Lamb."
Thomas Edison perfects the Incandescent light bulb.
James Garfield becomes president of the United States.
On July 2, Garfield is assassinated. Vice President Chester Arthur becomes president of the United States.
Telephone service arrives in Archbold when long distance lines are strung from Toledo to Bryan.
Grover Cleveland wins the presidential election.
Archbold's first newspaper The Archbold Herald begins publication on March 18 at W. O. Taylor's print shop.
Benjamin Harrison is elected president of the United States.
Virtually without warning, Johnstown, Pennsylvania is hit by a savage flood that kills over 2,000 people.
On December 29, a struggle breaks out among a group of American soldiers and captive Sioux Indians which kills more than 200 Native Americans at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. This marks the last major battle between Native Americans and whites.

The Rosehill School is built north of Wauseon, Ohio. This building is now known at the District 16 schoolhouse in Historic Sauder Village.
Grover Cleveland regains the presidency of the United States.
The Colombian Exposition and World's Fair is held in Chicago honoring the anniversary of Columbus' discovery of the New World. Over 21 million people visit.
Henry Ford builds his first car.

William McKinley is elected president of the United States.

The Supreme Court's decision in Plessy vs. Ferguson states that separate facilities used by African Americans, as long as they were equal to whites', were not discrimination.
On April 24, Spain declares war on the United States following Congress' support of Cuba's fight for independence.

Marconi invented the wireless telegraph that made communication with ships at sea and later, the radio, possible.

Archbold became the first town between Toledo and Elkhart, Indiana to have electric streetlights and power.
Dr. William McGuffin arrived in Pettisville, Ohio and began his 42-year practice as a country doctor. His 1920 office is now at Historic Sauder Village.
On September 6, President McKinley is assassinated. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt becomes president of the United States.
The first successful manned flight occurred on December 17 as Wilbur and Orville Wright fly their plane for 12 seconds over Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

"The Great Train Robbery" is filmed. Its popularity led to the creation of movie houses (or nickelodeons) throughout the country.
On August 6, Erie Sauder is born in rural Fulton County, Ohio. He grows up to found Sauder Woodworking and Historic Sauder Village.
July 19, trolley service from Toledo to Bryan is established on the Toledo and Indiana Railroad. Stops are made in Swanton, Delta, Wauseon, Pettisville and Archbold. In 1917, over 1 million passengers are served.
On April 18, San Francisco is devastated by a powerful earthquake. Over 700 lives are lost.
William Howard Taft is elected president of the United States.

Henry Ford introduces the Model T.
Gus and Amelia Grime move their homestead, originally built in 1860 and located north of Archbold, Ohio, closer to what is now State Route 2. This is the current 1920 Homestead at Historic Sauder Village. The 1920 Homestead is one of the only buildings original to the site where Sauder Village now exists.
Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia, 1998 Edition
Fulton County History 1850–1976
Sauder Village interpretive material